By Rabbi Yair Hoffman for 5tjt.com
Recently, a family member purchased apples from Costco. The label on it states in small lettering that there is a coating on it. This may very well be halachically problematic. Echoing the words of Rabbi Akiva, we can warn readers – “Sheli, veshelachem – shellac.”
It is a problem that dates back to the 1980’s. At the time, the Agudah tried fighting it at the state level, but, unfortunately, they lost. New York State law allows apple producers to coat apples with shellac.
After picking the apples, growers often wash them to remove bugs, dirt and leaf litter. Most of the apple’s natural wax is lost in the process, dulling the apple’s appearance. To make up for that, growers use a coat of edible synthetic wax to replace the original shine. Mostly, this is either shellac or carnauba wax. They help to both seal in the moisture and extend the shelf life of the fruit.
But where does shellac come from? It comes from a beetle known as Kerria Lacca.
Farmers in southeast Asia and in Mexico obtain sticks of Kerria Lacca eggs that are ready to hatch and attach these sticks to trees that are to be infested. The beetles hatch and colonize the branches of the host trees. There Kerria Lacca insert themselves into these branches in small cavernous tunnels, sucking out the sap and some bark for sustenance. Soon, they will begin secreting a much sought after resin in order to traverse the branches of the tree.
The resin is called sticklac. There are 150 Kerra Lacca beetles per square inch, after they hatch. Workers collect the resin, heat and filter it and remove body parts and bark parts. The end product is known as Shellac. Alcohol is added to it, and it becomes an ingredient in many food grade glazes. This glaze ends up on thousands of products — including candies, chocolates, and fresh waxed fruit.
Shellac is not only added to many New York State apples, but also to chocolates, and other glazes. To make the glaze, the Shellac is mixed with four or five parts of alcohol.
The halachic issue is not new. What is new is that a growing number of organizations and people are taking the more stringent view. Why this has happened is another issue. But few can deny that the matter is of growing concern.
The debate seems to be a three-way debate between Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l, Rav Elyashiv zt”l, and Dayan Weiss zt”l. It concerns the Kashrus of confectioner’s glaze and other food resins on hundreds of food products, including apples and candy, and come from beetles.
Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l (Igros Moshe YD II #24) in a letter dated January 18th, 1965 to Rabbi Nachum Kornmill, the former Rabbi of the Young Israel of Lawrence Cedarhurst in
the Five Towns, cites four reasons why shellac would be considered kosher:
– The process regarding Lac beetles seems no different than bee honey — where the product is produced outside of the main body of the insect. The Beis Yoseph seems to extend one type of honey to another type of honey — therefore we can perhaps also extend this to shellac production from beetles.
– Rav Feinstein also suggests that Shellac would be included within the verse that is understood to specifically come to permit bee honey since there is only one type of Shellac (as opposed to many types of honey). The verse, argues Rav Feinstein zt”l, permits the product of all flying things that do not require name identification by species. Shellac does not require this because there is only one type of shellac.
– Rav Feinstein disagrees with the view of Rabbi Joseph Teumim (the Pri Magadim) who writes that even a non-kosher item with no taste still requires a ratio of sixty times the amount of kosher to non-kosher in order for it to be kosher. Rav Feinstein suggested that this view is incorrect.
– Rav Feinstein considered the possibility that this Shellac is not ingested into the body at
all and is therefore not forbidden.
At least three of Rav Feinstein’s four points have come under scrutiny and debate among some circles in the Rabbinic world.
The first point is questioned because Rav Feinstein needs to change the girsah or wording of the Talmud in order to make this argument. Some question this because there is no indication of this change in any manuscript or Rabbinic work. There are also over 100 different types of coccoid beetles that produce different lac products. Rabbis also question his other points as well (See volume III of Rav Yechezkel Roth’s responsa book).
DAYAN WEISS ZT”L’s VIEW
The next view is that of Dayan Yitzchak Weiss zt”l. He writes in a responsa dated May 7th, 1986 (Minchas Yitzchok Vol. X #65) that there would be basis to permit it, as the Shellac is only added for Chazussah — appearance and even then it may fall into the category of zeh vazeh gorem — two items both being a cause of it. Furthermore, he rules that the halacha is in accordance with the Pri Chadash that in regard to matters of appearance we are only dealing with a Rabbinic issue and not a Torah prohibition. The fact that it is mixed with a greater percentage of alcohol may make the prohibition null and void. However, he concludes that due to our lack of a depth of knowledge into the properties and nature of Shellac — he is unable to permit it.
RAV ELYASHIV ZT’L’S VIEW
Finally, the third view is that of Rav Elyashiv zt”l. He writes in Kovetz Teshuvos (Vol 1 #73) that according to the ruling of the Mordechai and Rabbeinu Gershom — the leniency of the external product of a forbidden animal would only have applied to an animal or creature that the surrounding population generally consumes. Beetles, however, are not generally consumed — therefore that which comes from it (the Shellac) would still be forbidden.
One can perhaps challenge the information presented to Rav Elyashiv in terms of whether or not the beetles are eaten by the general population or not. Beetles are the most popular insect in the world with some 3 billion people in China, India and Africa consuming them. While it could be argued that Rav Elyashiv’s point would not apply in those countries, there is a huge “icky factor” in western countries. Thus, in the United States, Canada, and in Israel they would still be forbidden. Nonetheless, there are 36 African countries that are “entomophagous” – as are 23 in the Americas, 29 in Asia, and 11 in Europe. Clearly, we are moving toward a more entomophagous society. The United Nations in New York has also called for more and more beetle and insect consumption.
It could perhaps be argued that in a post-Trump United States ,with the impending rise in immigration from bug consuming countries, Rav Elyashiv’s stringency would no longer be applicable. It seems, however, that most of the organizations and Rabbis who have ruled stringently on the matter also do so because of Dayan Weiss’ hesitations, as well as questions that they had on Rav Moshe’s ruling.
Some have also argued that Rav Feinstein zt”l was the Posaik Hador (Posek of the whole generation) and since he permitted it, his ruling was valid.
Of course, each person should consult his own Rabbi as to what to do in regard to Kerria Lacca. But whatever one’s personal views on the matter, at the end of the day, many schools, shuls and entire communities are now strictly adhering to this standard to avoid Kerria Lacca. The vegan community is also interested in a replacement product and many in that world have stopped eating this product, opting for a corn-based item instead.
NO KASHRUS AGENCY HAS STEPPED TO THE PLATE
So far, no kashrus agency has extended effort to research which apples are kosher and which ones apply the questionable coating. Until that happens, one can either choose to rely on the lenient Poskim or employ one of the following four methods of shellac removal. As my youngest son remarked, “If you eat Mike and Ikes, then you can also probably have the apples.”
There are four ways to remove the shellac.
The first method involves dipping the apple in hot water for a few seconds to remove the wax. Once the apple is removed from the hot water, wash it again under running tap water.
The second method is to mix one tablespoon of lemon juice and one tablespoon of baking soda in water. Place the apples should in this mixture and scrub, using a vegetable brush. Then rinse them under filtered tap water.
One can use vinegar instead of lemon juice. Scrub the apples and rinse with water before consuming.
Apple cider vinegar is also an option. You can use a paper towel or clean cloth to wipe the apple with the solution. Then wash the fruit off with water.
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